Nasal and sinus congestion and infections can be caused by allergies, a viral cold, or a bacterial infection.
Sinus congestion can cause facial pain and pressure, a stuffy and runny nose, headache, and postnasal drip. Sinus infections can cause fever, fatigue, and bad breath.
Ear ache, infection, and hearing loss can be caused by a variety of issues, including an infection, injury, or an underlying medical condition, including cholesteatoma or nasopharyngeal masses or tumours.
Symptoms of ear ache, infection, or hearing loss can include pain, itchiness, discharge, dizziness, ringing in the ears, and hearing difficulties.
Tinnitus can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to loud noises, ear infections, wax buildup, medications, and underlying medical conditions.
Tinnitus can cause a ringing, whistling, buzzing, or hissing sound in the ears that can range from mild to severe.
Patients should seek medical advice and possibly further investigation, including hearing tests and MRI scans.
Balance problems can be caused by a variety of issues, including inner ear infections labyrinthitis, head trauma, medications, and underlying medical conditions, including Benign paroxysmal positional ventigo (BBPV) and Meniere's disease. One should also consider neurological and cardiovascular causes of balance problem.
Balance problems can cause dizziness, nausea, difficulties in walking, light-headedness and ear symptoms including tinnitus, deafness and ear fullness.
Voice changes, hoarseness, or vocal cord dysfunction can be caused by a variety of issues, including voice abuse or misuse, allergies, a cold, or an underlying medical condition including benign or malignant tumours.
Voice changes, hoarseness, or vocal cord dysfunction can cause difficulty speaking, a feeling of dryness in the throat, and a loss of vocal range.
Any patient who has had any voice changes for over 2 weeks should seek medical advice.
Neck masses or enlarged lymph nodes can be caused by a variety of issues, including infection, cancer, or an underlying medical condition, including thyroid diseases and salivary gland diseases.
Neck masses or enlarged lymph nodes can cause pain, tenderness, and swelling in the neck and breathing and swallowing difficulties.
Patient with persistent neck masses or enlarged lymph nodes should seek medical advice.
Sore throat +/- swallowing difficulties can be caused by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), bacterial infections including tonsillitis, glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis) and sometimes tumours of the throat.
Patients may experience sore throat, pain and difficulty in swallowing, fever and tiredness.
Non invasive treatments include antibiotics, painkillers and mouth gargles.
Surgical treatments would depend on the underlying causes and may include tonsillectomy and surgical biopsies.
Sleep Apnoea can be caused by excessive body weight (high BMI), nasal and throat problems and sometimes a combination of the above.
Snoring and daytime sleepiness are common symptoms but if sleep apnoea is not treated, patients can develop high blood pressure, heart and lung diseases and stroke.
Non-invasive treatments include Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machine and dietary control.
Surgery may be necessary and it includes septoplasty, reduction of inferior turbinates and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP).
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